Statue of Liberty | Wikipedia audio article
Statue of Liberty | Wikipedia audio article


The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening
the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture
on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people
of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric
Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The Statue of Liberty is a figure of Libertas,
a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her
right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals
with “JULY IV MDCCLXXVI” (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lay at her feet
as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery. The statue became an icon of freedom and of
the United States, and a national park tourism destination. It is a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving
from abroad. Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor
and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that
any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French
and U.S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France,
work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French
finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing
arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity
at international expositions. The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the
Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from
1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for
the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York
World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000
contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was built in France, shipped overseas
in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe’s
Island. The statue’s completion was marked by New
York’s first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover
Cleveland. The statue was administered by the United
States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has
been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National
Monument. Public access to the balcony around the torch
has been barred since 1916.==Design and construction process=====Origin===According to the National Park Service, the
idea of a monument presented by the French people to the United States was first proposed
by Édouard René de Laboulaye, president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent
and important political thinker of his time. The project is traced to a mid-1865 conversation
between Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist, and Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. In after-dinner conversation at his home near
Versailles, Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War, is
supposed to have said: “If a monument should rise in the United States, as a memorial to
their independence, I should think it only natural if it were built by united effort—a
common work of both our nations.” The National Park Service, in a 2000 report,
however, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, and that the statue
was most likely conceived in 1870. In another essay on their website, the Park
Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences,
“With the abolition of slavery and the Union’s victory in the Civil War in 1865, Laboulaye’s
wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into a reality in the United States. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye
proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention
to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call
for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy.” According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi,
who later recounted the story, Laboulaye’s alleged comment was not intended as a proposal,
but it inspired Bartholdi. Given the repressive nature of the regime
of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with
Laboulaye. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other
possible projects; in the late 1860s, he approached Isma’il Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, with a plan
to build Progress or Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia, a huge lighthouse in the form of
an ancient Egyptian female fellah or peasant, robed and holding a torch aloft, at the northern
entrance to the Suez Canal in Port Said. Sketches and models were made of the proposed
work, though it was never erected. There was a classical precedent for the Suez
proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: an ancient bronze statue of the Greek god of the sun,
Helios. This statue is believed to have been over
100 feet (30 m) high, and it similarly stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to
guide ships. Both the khedive and Lesseps declined the
proposed statue from Bartholdi, citing the expensive cost. The Port Said Lighthouse was built instead,
by François Coignet in 1869. Any large project was further delayed by the
Franco-Prussian War, in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia. In the war, Napoleon III was captured and
deposed. Bartholdi’s home province of Alsace was lost
to the Prussians, and a more liberal republic was installed in France. As Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the
United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential
Americans. In June 1871, Bartholdi crossed the Atlantic,
with letters of introduction signed by Laboulaye.Arriving at New York Harbor, Bartholdi focused on Bedloe’s
Island (now named Liberty Island) as a site for the statue, struck by the fact that vessels
arriving in New York had to sail past it. He was delighted to learn that the island
was owned by the United States government—it had been ceded by the New York State Legislature
in 1800 for harbor defense. It was thus, as he put it in a letter to Laboulaye:
“land common to all the states.” As well as meeting many influential New Yorkers,
Bartholdi visited President Ulysses S. Grant, who assured him that it would not be difficult
to obtain the site for the statue. Bartholdi crossed the United States twice
by rail, and met many Americans who he thought would be sympathetic to the project. But he remained concerned that popular opinion
on both sides of the Atlantic was insufficiently supportive of the proposal, and he and Laboulaye
decided to wait before mounting a public campaign. Bartholdi had made a first model of his concept
in 1870. The son of a friend of Bartholdi’s, U.S. artist
John LaFarge, later maintained that Bartholdi made the first sketches for the statue during
his U.S. visit at La Farge’s Rhode Island studio. Bartholdi continued to develop the concept
following his return to France. He also worked on a number of sculptures designed
to bolster French patriotism after the defeat by the Prussians. One of these was the Lion of Belfort, a monumental
sculpture carved in sandstone below the fortress of Belfort, which during the war had resisted
a Prussian siege for over three months. The defiant lion, 73 feet (22 m) long and
half that in height, displays an emotional quality characteristic of Romanticism, which
Bartholdi would later bring to the Statue of Liberty.===Design, style, and symbolism===Bartholdi and Laboulaye considered how best
to express the idea of American liberty. In early American history, two female figures
were frequently used as cultural symbols of the nation. One of these symbols, the personified Columbia,
was seen as an embodiment of the United States in the manner that Britannia was identified
with the United Kingdom and Marianne came to represent France. Columbia had supplanted the traditional European
personification of the Americas as an “Indian princess”, which had come to be regarded as
uncivilized and derogatory toward Americans. The other significant female icon in American
culture was a representation of Liberty, derived from Libertas, the goddess of freedom widely
worshipped in ancient Rome, especially among emancipated slaves. A Liberty figure adorned most American coins
of the time, and representations of Liberty appeared in popular and civic art, including
Thomas Crawford’s Statue of Freedom (1863) atop the dome of the United States Capitol
Building. Artists of the 18th and 19th centuries striving
to evoke republican ideals commonly used representations of Libertas as an allegorical symbol. A figure of Liberty was also depicted on the
Great Seal of France. However, Bartholdi and Laboulaye avoided an
image of revolutionary liberty such as that depicted in Eugène Delacroix’s famed Liberty
Leading the People (1830). In this painting, which commemorates France’s
July Revolution, a half-clothed Liberty leads an armed mob over the bodies of the fallen. Laboulaye had no sympathy for revolution,
and so Bartholdi’s figure would be fully dressed in flowing robes. Instead of the impression of violence in the
Delacroix work, Bartholdi wished to give the statue a peaceful appearance and chose a torch,
representing progress, for the figure to hold.Crawford’s statue was designed in the early 1850s. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus,
the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, a Southerner
who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America, was concerned
that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. He ordered that it be changed to a helmet. Delacroix’s figure wears a pileus, and Bartholdi
at first considered placing one on his figure as well. Instead, he used a diadem, or crown, to top
its head. In so doing, he avoided a reference to Marianne,
who invariably wears a pileus. The seven rays form a halo or aureole. They evoke the sun, the seven seas, and the
seven continents, and represent another means, besides the torch, whereby Liberty enlightens
the world.Bartholdi’s early models were all similar in concept: a female figure in neoclassical
style representing liberty, wearing a stola and pella (gown and cloak, common in depictions
of Roman goddesses) and holding a torch aloft. According to popular accounts, the face was
modeled after that of Charlotte Beysser Bartholdi, the sculptor’s mother, but Regis Huber, the
curator of the Bartholdi Museum is on record as saying that this, as well as other similar
speculations, have no basis in fact. He designed the figure with a strong, uncomplicated
silhouette, which would be set off well by its dramatic harbor placement and allow passengers
on vessels entering New York Bay to experience a changing perspective on the statue as they
proceeded toward Manhattan. He gave it bold classical contours and applied
simplified modeling, reflecting the huge scale of the project and its solemn purpose. Bartholdi wrote of his technique: The surfaces should be broad and simple, defined
by a bold and clear design, accentuated in the important places. The enlargement of the details or their multiplicity
is to be feared. By exaggerating the forms, in order to render
them more clearly visible, or by enriching them with details, we would destroy the proportion
of the work. Finally, the model, like the design, should
have a summarized character, such as one would give to a rapid sketch. Only it is necessary that this character should
be the product of volition and study, and that the artist, concentrating his knowledge,
should find the form and the line in its greatest simplicity. Bartholdi made alterations in the design as
the project evolved. Bartholdi considered having Liberty hold a
broken chain, but decided this would be too divisive in the days after the Civil War. The erected statue does stride over a broken
chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground. Bartholdi was initially uncertain of what
to place in Liberty’s left hand; he settled on a tabula ansata, used to evoke the concept
of law. Though Bartholdi greatly admired the United
States Constitution, he chose to inscribe “JULY IV MDCCLXXVI” on the tablet, thus associating
the date of the country’s Declaration of Independence with the concept of liberty. Bartholdi interested his friend and mentor,
architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, in the project. As chief engineer, Viollet-le-Duc designed
a brick pier within the statue, to which the skin would be anchored. After consultations with the metalwork foundry
Gaget, Gauthier & Co., Viollet-le-Duc chose the metal which would be used for the skin,
copper sheets, and the method used to shape it, repoussé, in which the sheets were heated
and then struck with wooden hammers. An advantage of this choice was that the entire
statue would be light for its volume, as the copper need be only 0.094 inches (2.4 mm)
thick. Bartholdi had decided on a height of just
over 151 feet (46 m) for the statue, double that of Italy’s Sancarlone and the German
statue of Arminius, both made with the same method.===Announcement and early work===
By 1875, France was enjoying improved political stability and a recovering postwar economy. Growing interest in the upcoming Centennial
Exposition in Philadelphia led Laboulaye to decide it was time to seek public support. In September 1875, he announced the project
and the formation of the Franco-American Union as its fundraising arm. With the announcement, the statue was given
a name, Liberty Enlightening the World. The French would finance the statue; Americans
would be expected to pay for the pedestal. The announcement provoked a generally favorable
reaction in France, though many Frenchmen resented the United States for not coming
to their aid during the war with Prussia. French monarchists opposed the statue, if
for no other reason than it was proposed by the liberal Laboulaye, who had recently been
elected a senator for life. Laboulaye arranged events designed to appeal
to the rich and powerful, including a special performance at the Paris Opera on April 25,
1876, that featured a new cantata by composer Charles Gounod. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant
le monde, the French version of the statue’s announced name. Initially focused on the elites, the Union
was successful in raising funds from across French society. Schoolchildren and ordinary citizens gave,
as did 181 French municipalities. Laboulaye’s political allies supported the
call, as did descendants of the French contingent in the American Revolutionary War. Less idealistically, contributions came from
those who hoped for American support in the French attempt to build the Panama Canal. The copper may have come from multiple sources
and some of it is said to have come from a mine in Visnes, Norway, though this has not
been conclusively determined after testing samples. According to Cara Sutherland in her book on
the statue for the Museum of the City of New York, 200,000 pounds (91,000 kg) was needed
to build the statue, and the French copper industrialist Eugène Secrétan donated 128,000
pounds (58,000 kg) of copper.Although plans for the statue had not been finalized, Bartholdi
moved forward with fabrication of the right arm, bearing the torch, and the head. Work began at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop. In May 1876, Bartholdi traveled to the United
States as a member of a French delegation to the Centennial Exhibition, and arranged
for a huge painting of the statue to be shown in New York as part of the Centennial festivities. The arm did not arrive in Philadelphia until
August; because of its late arrival, it was not listed in the exhibition catalogue, and
while some reports correctly identified the work, others called it the “Colossal Arm”
or “Bartholdi Electric Light”. The exhibition grounds contained a number
of monumental artworks to compete for fairgoers’ interest, including an outsized fountain designed
by Bartholdi. Nevertheless, the arm proved popular in the
exhibition’s waning days, and visitors would climb up to the balcony of the torch to view
the fairgrounds. After the exhibition closed, the arm was transported
to New York, where it remained on display in Madison Square Park for several years before
it was returned to France to join the rest of the statue.During his second trip to the
United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the
formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union. Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation
and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. The New York group eventually took on most
of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the “American
Committee”. One of its members was 19-year-old Theodore
Roosevelt, the future governor of New York and president of the United States. On March 3, 1877, on his final full day in
office, President Grant signed a joint resolution that authorized the President to accept the
statue when it was presented by France and to select a site for it. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who took office
the following day, selected the Bedloe’s Island site that Bartholdi had proposed.===Construction in France===On his return to Paris in 1877, Bartholdi
concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the 1878 Paris World’s Fair. Fundraising continued, with models of the
statue put on sale. Tickets to view the construction activity
at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop were also offered. The French government authorized a lottery;
among the prizes were valuable silver plate and a terracotta model of the statue. By the end of 1879, about 250,000 francs had
been raised.The head and arm had been built with assistance from Viollet-le-Duc, who fell
ill in 1879. He soon died, leaving no indication of how
he intended to transition from the copper skin to his proposed masonry pier. The following year, Bartholdi was able to
obtain the services of the innovative designer and builder Gustave Eiffel. Eiffel and his structural engineer, Maurice
Koechlin, decided to abandon the pier and instead build an iron truss tower. Eiffel opted not to use a completely rigid
structure, which would force stresses to accumulate in the skin and lead eventually to cracking. A secondary skeleton was attached to the center
pylon, then, to enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor and
as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure
to the skin using flat iron bars which culminated in a mesh of metal straps, known as “saddles”,
that were riveted to the skin, providing firm support. In a labor-intensive process, each saddle
had to be crafted individually. To prevent galvanic corrosion between the
copper skin and the iron support structure, Eiffel insulated the skin with asbestos impregnated
with shellac.Eiffel’s design made the statue one of the earliest examples of curtain wall
construction, in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing, but is instead
supported by an interior framework. He included two interior spiral staircases,
to make it easier for visitors to reach the observation point in the crown. Access to an observation platform surrounding
the torch was also provided, but the narrowness of the arm allowed for only a single ladder,
40 feet (12 m) long. As the pylon tower arose, Eiffel and Bartholdi
coordinated their work carefully so that completed segments of skin would fit exactly on the
support structure. The components of the pylon tower were built
in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret.The change in structural
material from masonry to iron allowed Bartholdi to change his plans for the statue’s assembly. He had originally expected to assemble the
skin on-site as the masonry pier was built; instead he decided to build the statue in
France and have it disassembled and transported to the United States for reassembly in place
on Bedloe’s Island.In a symbolic act, the first rivet placed into the skin, fixing a
copper plate onto the statue’s big toe, was driven by United States Ambassador to France
Levi P. Morton. The skin was not, however, crafted in exact
sequence from low to high; work proceeded on a number of segments simultaneously in
a manner often confusing to visitors. Some work was performed by contractors—one
of the fingers was made to Bartholdi’s exacting specifications by a coppersmith in the southern
French town of Montauban. By 1882, the statue was complete up to the
waist, an event Barthodi celebrated by inviting reporters to lunch on a platform built within
the statue. Laboulaye died in 1883. He was succeeded as chairman of the French
committee by Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal. The completed statue was formally presented
to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced
that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York. The statue remained intact in Paris pending
sufficient progress on the pedestal; by January 1885, this had occurred and the statue was
disassembled and crated for its ocean voyage. The committees in the United States faced
great difficulties in obtaining funds for the construction of the pedestal. The Panic of 1873 had led to an economic depression
that persisted through much of the decade. The Liberty statue project was not the only
such undertaking that had difficulty raising money: construction of the obelisk later known
as the Washington Monument sometimes stalled for years; it would ultimately take over three-and-a-half
decades to complete. There was criticism both of Bartholdi’s statue
and of the fact that the gift required Americans to foot the bill for the pedestal. In the years following the Civil War, most
Americans preferred realistic artworks depicting heroes and events from the nation’s history,
rather than allegorical works like the Liberty statue. There was also a feeling that Americans should
design American public works—the selection of Italian-born Constantino Brumidi to decorate
the Capitol had provoked intense criticism, even though he was a naturalized U.S. citizen. Harper’s Weekly declared its wish that “M.
Bartholdi and our French cousins had ‘gone the whole figure’ while they were about it,
and given us statue and pedestal at once.” The New York Times stated that “no true patriot
can countenance any such expenditures for bronze females in the present state of our
finances.” Faced with these criticisms, the American
committees took little action for several years.====Design====The foundation of Bartholdi’s statue was to
be laid inside Fort Wood, a disused army base on Bedloe’s Island constructed between 1807
and 1811. Since 1823, it had rarely been used, though
during the Civil War, it had served as a recruiting station. The fortifications of the structure were in
the shape of an eleven-point star. The statue’s foundation and pedestal were
aligned so that it would face southeast, greeting ships entering the harbor from the Atlantic
Ocean. In 1881, the New York committee commissioned
Richard Morris Hunt to design the pedestal. Within months, Hunt submitted a detailed plan,
indicating that he expected construction to take about nine months. He proposed a pedestal 114 feet (35 m) in
height; faced with money problems, the committee reduced that to 89 feet (27 m).Hunt’s pedestal
design contains elements of classical architecture, including Doric portals, as well as some elements
influenced by Aztec architecture. The large mass is fragmented with architectural
detail, in order to focus attention on the statue. In form, it is a truncated pyramid, 62 feet
(19 m) square at the base and 39.4 feet (12.0 m) at the top. The four sides are identical in appearance. Above the door on each side, there are ten
disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states (between 1876
and 1889, there were 38 U.S. states), although this was not done. Above that, a balcony was placed on each side,
framed by pillars. Bartholdi placed an observation platform near
the top of the pedestal, above which the statue itself rises. According to author Louis Auchincloss, the
pedestal “craggily evokes the power of an ancient Europe over which rises the dominating
figure of the Statue of Liberty”. The committee hired former army General Charles
Pomeroy Stone to oversee the construction work. Construction on the 15-foot-deep (4.6 m) foundation
began in 1883, and the pedestal’s cornerstone was laid in 1884. In Hunt’s original conception, the pedestal
was to have been made of solid granite. Financial concerns again forced him to revise
his plans; the final design called for poured concrete walls, up to 20 feet (6.1 m) thick,
faced with granite blocks. This Stony Creek granite came from the Beattie
Quarry in Branford, Connecticut. The concrete mass was the largest poured to
that time.Norwegian immigrant civil engineer Joachim Goschen Giæver designed the structural
framework for the Statue of Liberty. His work involved design computations, detailed
fabrication and construction drawings, and oversight of construction. In completing his engineering for the statue’s
frame, Giæver worked from drawings and sketches produced by Gustave Eiffel.====Fundraising====Fundraising for the statue had begun in 1882. The committee organized a large number of
money-raising events. As part of one such effort, an auction of
art and manuscripts, poet Emma Lazarus was asked to donate an original work. She initially declined, stating she could
not write a poem about a statue. At the time, she was also involved in aiding
refugees to New York who had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in eastern Europe. These refugees were forced to live in conditions
that the wealthy Lazarus had never experienced. She saw a way to express her empathy for these
refugees in terms of the statue. The resulting sonnet, “The New Colossus”,
including the iconic lines “Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to
breathe free”, is uniquely identified with the Statue of Liberty and is inscribed on
a plaque in its museum.Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. Grover Cleveland, the governor of New York,
vetoed a bill to provide $50,000 for the statue project in 1884. An attempt the next year to have Congress
provide $100,000, sufficient to complete the project, also failed. The New York committee, with only $3,000 in
the bank, suspended work on the pedestal. With the project in jeopardy, groups from
other American cities, including Boston and Philadelphia, offered to pay the full cost
of erecting the statue in return for relocating it.Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York
World, a New York newspaper, announced a drive to raise $100,000—the equivalent of $2.3
million today. Pulitzer pledged to print the name of every
contributor, no matter how small the amount given. The drive captured the imagination of New
Yorkers, especially when Pulitzer began publishing the notes he received from contributors. “A young girl alone in the world” donated
“60 cents, the result of self denial.” One donor gave “five cents as a poor office
boy’s mite toward the Pedestal Fund.” A group of children sent a dollar as “the
money we saved to go to the circus with.” Another dollar was given by a “lonely and
very aged woman.” Residents of a home for alcoholics in New
York’s rival city of Brooklyn—the cities would not merge until 1898—donated $15;
other drinkers helped out through donation boxes in bars and saloons. A kindergarten class in Davenport, Iowa, mailed
the World a gift of $1.35. As the donations flooded in, the committee
resumed work on the pedestal.====Construction====
On June 17, 1885, the French steamer Isère arrived in New York with the crates holding
the disassembled statue on board. New Yorkers displayed their new-found enthusiasm
for the statue. Two hundred thousand people lined the docks
and hundreds of boats put to sea to welcome the ship. After five months of daily calls to donate
to the statue fund, on August 11, 1885, the World announced that $102,000 had been raised
from 120,000 donors, and that 80 percent of the total had been received in sums of less
than one dollar.Even with the success of the fund drive, the pedestal was not completed
until April 1886. Immediately thereafter, reassembly of the
statue began. Eiffel’s iron framework was anchored to steel
I-beams within the concrete pedestal and assembled. Once this was done, the sections of skin were
carefully attached. Due to the width of the pedestal, it was not
possible to erect scaffolding, and workers dangled from ropes while installing the skin
sections. Nevertheless, no one died during the construction. Bartholdi had planned to put floodlights on
the torch’s balcony to illuminate it; a week before the dedication, the Army Corps of Engineers
vetoed the proposal, fearing that ships’ pilots passing the statue would be blinded. Instead, Bartholdi cut portholes in the torch—which
was covered with gold leaf—and placed the lights inside them. A power plant was installed on the island
to light the torch and for other electrical needs. After the skin was completed, renowned landscape
architect Frederick Law Olmsted, co-designer of New York’s Central Park and Brooklyn’s
Prospect Park, supervised a cleanup of Bedloe’s Island in anticipation of the dedication.===Dedication===A ceremony of dedication was held on the afternoon
of October 28, 1886. President Grover Cleveland, the former New
York governor, presided over the event. On the morning of the dedication, a parade
was held in New York City; estimates of the number of people who watched it ranged from
several hundred thousand to a million. President Cleveland headed the procession,
then stood in the reviewing stand to see bands and marchers from across America. General Stone was the grand marshal of the
parade. The route began at Madison Square, once the
venue for the arm, and proceeded to the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan by way of
Fifth Avenue and Broadway, with a slight detour so the parade could pass in front of the World
building on Park Row. As the parade passed the New York Stock Exchange,
traders threw ticker tape from the windows, beginning the New York tradition of the ticker-tape
parade.A nautical parade began at 12:45 p.m., and President Cleveland embarked on a yacht
that took him across the harbor to Bedloe’s Island for the dedication. De Lesseps made the first speech, on behalf
of the French committee, followed by the chairman of the New York committee, Senator William
M. Evarts. A French flag draped across the statue’s face
was to be lowered to unveil the statue at the close of Evarts’s speech, but Bartholdi
mistook a pause as the conclusion and let the flag fall prematurely. The ensuing cheers put an end to Evarts’s
address. President Cleveland spoke next, stating that
the statue’s “stream of light shall pierce the darkness of ignorance and man’s oppression
until Liberty enlightens the world”. Bartholdi, observed near the dais, was called
upon to speak, but he declined. Orator Chauncey M. Depew concluded the speechmaking
with a lengthy address.No members of the general public were permitted on the island during
the ceremonies, which were reserved entirely for dignitaries. The only females granted access were Bartholdi’s
wife and de Lesseps’s granddaughter; officials stated that they feared women might be injured
in the crush of people. The restriction offended area suffragists,
who chartered a boat and got as close as they could to the island. The group’s leaders made speeches applauding
the embodiment of Liberty as a woman and advocating women’s right to vote. A scheduled fireworks display was postponed
until November 1 because of poor weather.Shortly after the dedication, The Cleveland Gazette,
an African American newspaper, suggested that the statue’s torch not be lit until the United
States became a free nation “in reality”: “Liberty enlightening the world,” indeed! The expression makes us sick. This government is a howling farce. It can not or rather does not protect its
citizens within its own borders. Shove the Bartholdi statue, torch and all,
into the ocean until the “liberty” of this country is such as to make it possible for
an inoffensive and industrious colored man to earn a respectable living for himself and
family, without being ku-kluxed, perhaps murdered, his daughter and wife outraged, and his property
destroyed. The idea of the “liberty” of this country
“enlightening the world,” or even Patagonia, is ridiculous in the extreme.==After dedication=====
Lighthouse Board and War Department (1886–1933)===When the torch was illuminated on the evening
of the statue’s dedication, it produced only a faint gleam, barely visible from Manhattan. The World characterized it as “more like a
glowworm than a beacon.” Bartholdi suggested gilding the statue to
increase its ability to reflect light, but this proved too expensive. The United States Lighthouse Board took over
the Statue of Liberty in 1887 and pledged to install equipment to enhance the torch’s
effect; in spite of its efforts, the statue remained virtually invisible at night. When Bartholdi returned to the United States
in 1893, he made additional suggestions, all of which proved ineffective. He did successfully lobby for improved lighting
within the statue, allowing visitors to better appreciate Eiffel’s design. In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt, once
a member of the New York committee, ordered the statue’s transfer to the War Department,
as it had proved useless as a lighthouse. A unit of the Army Signal Corps was stationed
on Bedloe’s Island until 1923, after which military police remained there while the island
was under military jurisdiction.The statue rapidly became a landmark. Many immigrants who entered through New York
saw it as a welcoming sight. Oral histories of immigrants record their
feelings of exhilaration on first viewing the Statue of Liberty. One immigrant who arrived from Greece recalled: I saw the Statue of Liberty. And I said to myself, “Lady, you’re such a
beautiful! [sic] You opened your arms and you get all the foreigners here. Give me a chance to prove that I am worth
it, to do something, to be someone in America.” And always that statue was on my mind. Originally, the statue was a dull copper color,
but shortly after 1900 a green patina, also called verdigris, caused by the oxidation
of the copper skin, began to spread. As early as 1902 it was mentioned in the press;
by 1906 it had entirely covered the statue. Believing that the patina was evidence of
corrosion, Congress authorized US$62,800 (equivalent to $1,751,000 in 2018) for various repairs,
and to paint the statue both inside and out. There was considerable public protest against
the proposed exterior painting. The Army Corps of Engineers studied the patina
for any ill effects to the statue and concluded that it protected the skin, “softened the
outlines of the Statue and made it beautiful.” The statue was painted only on the inside. The Corps of Engineers also installed an elevator
to take visitors from the base to the top of the pedestal.On July 30, 1916, during World
War I, German saboteurs set off a disastrous explosion on the Black Tom peninsula in Jersey
City, New Jersey, in what is now part of Liberty State Park, close to Bedloe’s Island. Carloads of dynamite and other explosives
that were being sent to Britain and France for their war efforts were detonated, and
seven people were killed. The statue sustained minor damage, mostly
to the torch-bearing right arm, and was closed for ten days. The cost to repair the statue and buildings
on the island was about US$100,000 (equivalent to about $2,300,000 in 2018). The narrow ascent to the torch was closed
for public-safety reasons, and it has remained closed ever since.That same year, Ralph Pulitzer,
who had succeeded his father Joseph as publisher of the World, began a drive to raise US$30,000
(equivalent to $691,000 in 2018) for an exterior lighting system to illuminate the statue at
night. He claimed over 80,000 contributors, but failed
to reach the goal. The difference was quietly made up by a gift
from a wealthy donor—a fact that was not revealed until 1936. An underwater power cable brought electricity
from the mainland and floodlights were placed along the walls of Fort Wood. Gutzon Borglum, who later sculpted Mount Rushmore,
redesigned the torch, replacing much of the original copper with stained glass. On December 2, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson
pressed the telegraph key that turned on the lights, successfully illuminating the statue.After
the United States entered World War I in 1917, images of the statue were heavily used in
both recruitment posters and the Liberty Bond drives that urged American citizens to support
the war financially. This impressed upon the public the war’s stated
purpose—to secure liberty—and served as a reminder that embattled France had given
the United States the statue.In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge used his authority under the
Antiquities Act to declare the statue a national monument. The only successful suicide in the statue’s
history occurred five years later, when a man climbed out of one of the windows in the
crown and jumped to his death, glancing off the statue’s breast and landing on the base.===Early National Park Service years (1933–1982)
===In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered
the statue to be transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). In 1937, the NPS gained jurisdiction over
the rest of Bedloe’s Island. With the Army’s departure, the NPS began to
transform the island into a park. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) demolished
most of the old buildings, regraded and reseeded the eastern end of the island, and built granite
steps for a new public entrance to the statue from its rear. The WPA also carried out restoration work
within the statue, temporarily removing the rays from the statue’s halo so their rusted
supports could be replaced. Rusted cast-iron steps in the pedestal were
replaced with new ones made of reinforced concrete; the upper parts of the stairways
within the statue were replaced, as well. Copper sheathing was installed to prevent
further damage from rainwater that had been seeping into the pedestal. The statue was closed to the public from May
until December 1938.During World War II, the statue remained open to visitors, although
it was not illuminated at night due to wartime blackouts. It was lit briefly on December 31, 1943, and
on D-Day, June 6, 1944, when its lights flashed “dot-dot-dot-dash”, the Morse code for V,
for victory. New, powerful lighting was installed in 1944–1945,
and beginning on V-E Day, the statue was once again illuminated after sunset. The lighting was for only a few hours each
evening, and it was not until 1957 that the statue was illuminated every night, all night. In 1946, the interior of the statue within
reach of visitors was coated with a special plastic so that graffiti could be washed away.In
1956, an Act of Congress officially renamed Bedloe’s Island as Liberty Island, a change
advocated by Bartholdi generations earlier. The act also mentioned the efforts to found
an American Museum of Immigration on the island, which backers took as federal approval of
the project, though the government was slow to grant funds for it. Nearby Ellis Island was made part of the Statue
of Liberty National Monument by proclamation of President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. In 1972, the immigration museum, in the statue’s
base, was finally opened in a ceremony led by President Richard Nixon. The museum’s backers never provided it with
an endowment to secure its future and it closed in 1991 after the opening of an immigration
museum on Ellis Island. In 1970, Ivy Bottini led a demonstration at
the statue where she and others from the National Organization for Women’s New York chapter
draped an enormous banner over a railing which read “WOMEN OF THE WORLD UNITE!”Beginning
December 26, 1971, 15 anti-Vietnam War veterans occupied the statue, flying a US flag upside
down from her crown. They left December 28 following a Federal
Court order. The statue was also several times taken over
briefly by demonstrators publicizing causes such as Puerto Rican independence, opposition
to abortion, and opposition to US intervention in Grenada. Demonstrations with the permission of the
Park Service included a Gay Pride Parade rally and the annual Captive Baltic Nations rally.A
powerful new lighting system was installed in advance of the American Bicentennial in
1976. The statue was the focal point for Operation
Sail, a regatta of tall ships from all over the world that entered New York Harbor on
July 4, 1976, and sailed around Liberty Island. The day concluded with a spectacular display
of fireworks near the statue.===Renovation and rededication (1982–2000)
===The statue was examined in great detail by
French and American engineers as part of the planning for its centennial in 1986. In 1982, it was announced that the statue
was in need of considerable restoration. Careful study had revealed that the right
arm had been improperly attached to the main structure. It was swaying more and more when strong winds
blew and there was a significant risk of structural failure. In addition, the head had been installed 2
feet (0.61 m) off center, and one of the rays was wearing a hole in the right arm when the
statue moved in the wind. The armature structure was badly corroded,
and about two percent of the exterior plates needed to be replaced. Although problems with the armature had been
recognized as early as 1936, when cast iron replacements for some of the bars had been
installed, much of the corrosion had been hidden by layers of paint applied over the
years.In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan announced the formation of the Statue of Liberty–Ellis
Island Centennial Commission, led by Chrysler Corporation chair Lee Iacocca, to raise the
funds needed to complete the work. Through its fundraising arm, the Statue of
Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation, Inc., the group raised more than $350 million in donations
for the renovations of both the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest
beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each
purchase made with an American Express card, the company would contribute one cent to the
renovation of the statue. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7
million to the restoration project.In 1984, the statue was closed to the public for the
duration of the renovation. Workers erected the world’s largest free-standing
scaffold, which obscured the statue from view. Liquid nitrogen was used to remove layers
of paint that had been applied to the interior of the copper skin over decades, leaving two
layers of coal tar, originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Blasting with baking soda powder removed the
tar without further damaging the copper. The restorers’ work was hampered by the asbestos-based
substance that Bartholdi had used—ineffectively, as inspections showed—to prevent galvanic
corrosion. Workers within the statue had to wear protective
gear, dubbed “moon suits”, with self-contained breathing circuits. Larger holes in the copper skin were repaired,
and new copper was added where necessary. The replacement skin was taken from a copper
rooftop at Bell Labs, which had a patina that closely resembled the statue’s; in exchange,
the laboratory was provided some of the old copper skin for testing. The torch, found to have been leaking water
since the 1916 alterations, was replaced with an exact replica of Bartholdi’s unaltered
torch. Consideration was given to replacing the arm
and shoulder; the National Park Service insisted that they be repaired instead. The original torch was removed and replaced
in 1986 with the current one, whose flame is covered in 24-karat gold. The torch reflects the Sun’s rays in daytime
and is lighted by floodlights at night. The entire puddled iron armature designed
by Gustave Eiffel was replaced. Low-carbon corrosion-resistant stainless steel
bars that now hold the staples next to the skin are made of Ferralium, an alloy that
bends slightly and returns to its original shape as the statue moves. To prevent the ray and arm making contact,
the ray was realigned by several degrees. The lighting was again replaced—night-time
illumination subsequently came from metal-halide lamps that send beams of light to particular
parts of the pedestal or statue, showing off various details. Access to the pedestal, which had been through
a nondescript entrance built in the 1960s, was renovated to create a wide opening framed
by a set of monumental bronze doors with designs symbolic of the renovation. A modern elevator was installed, allowing
handicapped access to the observation area of the pedestal. An emergency elevator was installed within
the statue, reaching up to the level of the shoulder.July 3–6, 1986, was designated
“Liberty Weekend”, marking the centennial of the statue and its reopening. President Reagan presided over the rededication,
with French President François Mitterrand in attendance. July 4 saw a reprise of Operation Sail, and
the statue was reopened to the public on July 5. In Reagan’s dedication speech, he stated,
“We are the keepers of the flame of liberty; we hold it high for the world to see.”===Closures and reopenings (2001–present)
===Immediately following the September 11 attacks,
the statue and Liberty Island were closed to the public. The island reopened at the end of 2001, while
the pedestal and statue remained off-limits. The pedestal reopened in August 2004, but
the National Park Service announced that visitors could not safely be given access to the statue
due to the difficulty of evacuation in an emergency. The Park Service adhered to that position
through the remainder of the Bush administration. New York Congressman Anthony Weiner made the
statue’s reopening a personal crusade. On May 17, 2009, President Barack Obama’s
Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, announced that as a “special gift” to America, the statue
would be reopened to the public as of July 4, but that only a limited number of people
would be permitted to ascend to the crown each day.The statue, including the pedestal
and base, closed on October 29, 2011, for installation of new elevators and staircases
and to bring other facilities, such as restrooms, up to code. The statue was reopened on October 28, 2012,
but then closed again a day later in advance of Hurricane Sandy. Although the storm did not harm the statue,
it destroyed some of the infrastructure on both Liberty and Ellis Islands, including
the dock used by the ferries that ran to Liberty and Ellis Islands. On November 8, 2012, a Park Service spokesperson
announced that both islands would remain closed for an indefinite period for repairs to be
done. Since Liberty Island had no electricity, a
generator was installed to power temporary floodlights to illuminate the statue at night. The superintendent of Statue of Liberty National
Monument, David Luchsinger—whose home on the island was severely damaged—stated that
it would be “optimistically … months” before the island was reopened to the public. The statue and Liberty Island reopened to
the public on July 4, 2013. Ellis Island remained closed for repairs for
several more months but reopened in late October 2013.The Statue of Liberty has also been closed
due to government shutdowns and protests. During the October 2013 United States federal
government shutdown, Liberty Island and other federally funded sites were closed. In addition, Liberty Island was briefly closed
on July 4, 2018, after a woman protesting against American immigration policy climbed
onto the statue. On October 7, 2016, construction started on
the new Statue of Liberty Museum on Liberty Island. The new $70 million, 26,000-square-foot (2,400
m2) museum may be visited by all who come to the island, as opposed to the museum in
the pedestal, which only 20% of the island’s visitors had access to. The new museum, designed by FXFOWLE Architects,
is integrated with the surrounding parkland. Diane von Fürstenberg headed the fundraising
for the museum, and the project received over $40 million in fundraising by groundbreaking. The museum opened on May 16, 2019.==Access and attributes=====
Location and access===The statue is situated in Upper New York Bay
on Liberty Island south of Ellis Island, which together comprise the Statue of Liberty National
Monument. Both islands were ceded by New York to the
federal government in 1800. As agreed in an 1834 compact between New York
and New Jersey that set the state border at the bay’s midpoint, the original islands remain
New York territory though located on the New Jersey side of the state line. Liberty Island is one of the islands that
are part of the borough of Manhattan in New York. Land created by reclamation added to the 2.3-acre
(0.93 ha) original island at Ellis Island is New Jersey territory.No charge is made
for entrance to the national monument, but there is a cost for the ferry service that
all visitors must use, as private boats may not dock at the island. A concession was granted in 2007 to Statue
Cruises to operate the transportation and ticketing facilities, replacing Circle Line,
which had operated the service since 1953. The ferries, which depart from Liberty State
Park in Jersey City and the Battery in Lower Manhattan, also stop at Ellis Island when
it is open to the public, making a combined trip possible. All ferry riders are subject to security screening,
similar to airport procedures, prior to boarding.Visitors intending to enter the statue’s base and pedestal
must obtain a complimentary museum/pedestal ticket along with their ferry ticket. Those wishing to climb the staircase within
the statue to the crown purchase a special ticket, which may be reserved up to a year
in advance. A total of 240 people per day are permitted
to ascend: ten per group, three groups per hour. Climbers may bring only medication and cameras—lockers
are provided for other items—and must undergo a second security screening.===Inscriptions, plaques, and dedications
===There are several plaques and dedicatory tablets
on or near the Statue of Liberty. A plaque on the copper just under the figure
in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi
and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (Cie is the French abbreviation analogous
to Co.). A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi’s
name, declares the statue is a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors
“the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States of America
and attests their abiding friendship.” A tablet placed by the American Committee
commemorates the fundraising done to build the pedestal. The cornerstone bears a plaque placed by the
Freemasons. In 1903, a bronze tablet that bears the text
of Emma Lazarus’s sonnet, “The New Colossus” (1883), was presented by friends of the poet. Until the 1986 renovation, it was mounted
inside the pedestal; today it resides in the Statue of Liberty Museum, in the base. “The New Colossus” tablet is accompanied by
a tablet given by the Emma Lazarus Commemorative Committee in 1977, celebrating the poet’s
life.A group of statues stands at the western end of the island, honoring those closely
associated with the Statue of Liberty. Two Americans—Pulitzer and Lazarus—and
three Frenchmen—Bartholdi, Eiffel, and Laboulaye—are depicted. They are the work of Maryland sculptor Phillip
Ratner.==UNESCO World Heritage Site==
In 1984, the Statue of Liberty was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The UNESCO “Statement of Significance” describes
the statue as a “masterpiece of the human spirit” that “endures as a highly potent symbol—inspiring
contemplation, debate and protest—of ideals such as liberty, peace, human rights, abolition
of slavery, democracy and opportunity.”==
Physical characteristics====
Depictions==Hundreds of replicas of the Statue of Liberty
are displayed worldwide. A smaller version of the statue, one-fourth
the height of the original, was given by the American community in Paris to that city. It now stands on the Île aux Cygnes, facing
west toward her larger sister. A replica 30 feet (9.1 m) tall stood atop
the Liberty Warehouse on West 64th Street in Manhattan for many years; it now resides
at the Brooklyn Museum. In a patriotic tribute, the Boy Scouts of
America, as part of their Strengthen the Arm of Liberty campaign in 1949–1952, donated
about two hundred replicas of the statue, made of stamped copper and 100 inches (2.5
m) in height, to states and municipalities across the United States. Though not a true replica, the statue known
as the Goddess of Democracy temporarily erected during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
was similarly inspired by French democratic traditions—the sculptors took care to avoid
a direct imitation of the Statue of Liberty. Among other recreations of New York City structures,
a replica of the statue is part of the exterior of the New York-New York Hotel and Casino
in Las Vegas. As an American icon, the Statue of Liberty
has been depicted on the country’s coinage and stamps. It appeared on commemorative coins issued
to mark its 1986 centennial, and on New York’s 2001 entry in the state quarters series. An image of the statue was chosen for the
American Eagle platinum bullion coins in 1997, and it was placed on the reverse, or tails,
side of the Presidential Dollar series of circulating coins. Two images of the statue’s torch appear on
the current ten-dollar bill. The statue’s intended photographic depiction
on a 2010 forever stamp proved instead to be of the replica at the Las Vegas casino.Depictions
of the statue have been used by many regional institutions. Between 1986 and 2000, New York State issued
license plates with an outline of the statue. The Women’s National Basketball Association’s
New York Liberty use both the statue’s name and its image in their logo, in which the
torch’s flame doubles as a basketball. The New York Rangers of the National Hockey
League depicted the statue’s head on their third jersey, beginning in 1997. The National Collegiate Athletic Association’s
1996 Men’s Basketball Final Four, played at New Jersey’s Meadowlands Sports Complex, featured
the statue in its logo. The Libertarian Party of the United States
uses the statue in its emblem.The statue is a frequent subject in popular culture. In music, it has been evoked to indicate support
for American policies, as in Toby Keith’s song “Courtesy of the Red, White and Blue
(The Angry American)”, and in opposition, appearing on the cover of the Dead Kennedys’
album Bedtime for Democracy, which protested the Reagan administration. In film, the torch is the setting for the
climax of director Alfred Hitchcock’s 1942 movie Saboteur. The statue makes one of its most famous cinematic
appearances in the 1968 picture Planet of the Apes, in which it is seen half-buried
in sand. It is knocked over in the science-fiction
film Independence Day and in Cloverfield the head is ripped off. In Jack Finney’s time-travel novel Time and
Again, the right arm of the statue, on display in the early 1880s in Madison Square Park,
plays a crucial role. Robert Holdstock, consulting editor of The
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, wondered in 1979: Where would science fiction be without the
Statue of Liberty? For decades it has towered or crumbled above
the wastelands of deserted [E]arth—giants have uprooted it, aliens have found it curious
… the symbol of Liberty, of optimism, has become a symbol of science fiction’s pessimistic
view of the future.==See also==List of the tallest statues in the United
States Place des États-Unis, in Paris, France
The Statue of Liberty, 1985 Ken Burns documentary film
Statues and sculptures in New York City List of statues by height

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